4 Air Conditioner Refrigerant and Some Knowledge of Use
Air conditioner refrigerant, also called ac refrigerant, is the working medium of the refrigeration cycle of the air conditioner. The refrigerant absorbs heat when it is vaporized in the evaporator and releases heat when it condenses in the condenser to achieve the purpose of refrigeration. Currently commonly used air conditioner refrigerants are R22, R410A, R32, and R290.
1. First of all, let’s introduce the classification of air conditioners
Air conditioners are classified by structure: split air conditioners and integral air conditioners (mainly split types in China)
Air conditioners are classified by function: heating and cooling machines and single cooling machines
Air conditioners are classified according to compressor speed: fixed-speed air conditioners and inverter air conditioners
Fixed-speed air conditioner: constant speed (frequency, speed, capacity unchanged), referred to as fixed-frequency type. R22 refrigerant (Freon) is mostly used. Always run at a frequency of 50HZ/S; it will automatically stop when it reaches the set temperature. After the large temperature difference, it will automatically turn on for operation.
Frequency conversion air conditioner: speed controllable (frequency, speed, capacity variable) type, referred to as frequency conversion type. R410A environmentally friendly refrigerant is mostly used.
2. Common air conditioning refrigerants
1) R22 refrigerant
R-22 is the most widely used medium and low-temperature air conditioner refrigerant today, mainly used in household air conditioners, commercial air conditioners, central air conditioners, mobile air conditioners, heat pump water heaters, dehumidifiers, refrigerated dryers, cold storage, food refrigeration equipment, marine refrigeration equipment, Industrial refrigeration, commercial refrigeration, refrigeration condensing units, supermarket display cabinets and other refrigeration equipment.
2) R410A refrigerant
R410A is a new type of environmentally friendly air conditioner refrigerant that does not destroy the ozone layer. The working pressure is about 1.6 times that of ordinary R22 air conditioners, and the cooling (warming) efficiency is higher. In recent years, mainstream air-conditioning companies have used R410A refrigerant to replace R-22 to promote inverter air conditioners. Although R410A has zero damage to the ozone layer, its greenhouse gas effect even partially exceeds that of R22. Therefore, R410A is not China’s air-conditioning industry’s ultimate environmentally friendly refrigerant solution. The industry unanimously recognizes that the R290-refrigerant alternative is the best and has been recognized by the government.
3) R32 refrigerant
R32, also known as difluoromethane, is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, low flammability, ozone destruction potential (ODP) is 0, and global warming coefficient (GWP) is 0.11. These advantages make it one of the substitutes for R22.
4) R290 refrigerant
R290, also known as propane, is a natural hydrocarbon air conditioner refrigerant that can obtain directly from petroleum crackers. It is a new type of environmentally friendly air conditioner refrigerant mainly used in central air conditioners, heat pump air conditioners, household air conditioners, and other small refrigeration equipment. Compared with Freon, a synthetic refrigerant, the molecule of natural working substance R290 does not contain chlorine atoms, so the ODP value (ozone depletion potential value) is zero, and it has no destructive effect on the ozone layer. In addition, compared with HFC substances that have no damage to the ozone layer, the GWP value (global warming potential value) of R290 is close to 0 and does not affect the greenhouse effect. The carbon dioxide emission reduction obtained using an air conditioner using R290 as a air conditioner refrigerant is equivalent to the carbon dioxide emitted by a car with a fuel consumption of 10 liters per 100 kilometers driving 6,000 kilometers.
3. How to judge whether the air conditioner lacks fluorine?
1) You can turn on the air conditioner first, wait for half an hour, open the panel, remove the filter, and check whether there is dew or frost on the evaporator. If there is, the air conditioner refrigerant is short.
2) You can also look at the joint of the indoor unit and the valve of the outdoor unit. The air conditioner refrigerant is short if oil is in these two places. Because fluorine and oil are mutually soluble, fluorine and oil leakage occur together, so there is oil.
3) When the air conditioner is in a fluorine-deficient state, the exhaust air of the outdoor unit of the air conditioner will have no thermal sensation, which is because the refrigerant is insufficient, resulting in a decrease in the condensation pressure and condensation temperature, so the exhaust air temperature will also decrease.
4) When the air conditioner is in a state of fluorine deficiency, measure the pressure of the outdoor unit’s fluorine filling port, which is lower than 0.45Mpa due to lacking air conditioner refrigerant causes the evaporation pressure to drop.
4. What should I do if the air conditioner is not cooling or the cooling effect is poor?
The air conditioner does not cool, and sometimes it may be caused by some simple reasons; we can check it ourselves first:
1) Check whether the air conditioner is adjusted to ventilation or dehumidification mode
If the air conditioner is not cold, don’t panic. Please pick up the remote control to confirm whether the battery is sufficient, and then check whether it is set to the ventilation and dehumidification mode. As a result, the air conditioner does not function normally. No matter how you blow it, it will not cool. It is recommended to adjust it to the cooling mode. Only then can the air conditioner play its due function!
2) Check whether the filter screen of the air conditioner has accumulated dust
When the air conditioner is turned on, it is always not cold. First, open the upper cover of the air conditioner to check whether the filter screen has accumulated thick dust and affects the cooling efficiency. When the air conditioner is frequently used in the summer, cleaning the filter screen every two weeks is recommended. In a humid environment with a lot of dust and lint, you can also increase the frequency of washing the filter according to your needs. And before summer comes every year, the air conditioner has not been used for a long time, so remember to wipe the shell of the air conditioner and clean the filter before turning it on to maintain its operating efficiency.
3) Check the evaporator and air drum inside the air conditioner
The filter has been cleaned, but the air conditioner is still not cold when the air conditioner is turned on. Next, check whether the evaporator under the filter and the air drum of the air outlet has not been cleaned for a long time. The air conditioner was freezing inside. Because the internal structure of the air conditioner is complicated, it is recommended to ask a professional to handle it if there is a need for cleaning. Generally, it is recommended to clean the interior of the air conditioner every 1 to 2 years.
4) Is the air conditioner refrigerant? How to judge can refer to point 3.
If the air conditioner is still not cooling, call a professional to overhaul it.